Journal of Biological Studies 2018-09-19T18:11:03-07:00 Amaal Yasser Open Journal Systems <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; line-height: 15.0pt; background: white;"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; color: #5c5c5c;">Aimes &amp; Scope</span></strong></p> <p style="line-height: 15.0pt; background: white; margin: 0in 0in 15.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; color: #5c5c5c;">Journal of Biological Studies (JBS) (ISSN 2209-2560) is a peer-reviewed open access journal which publishes high-quality articles in all areas related to Biological fields.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 15.0pt; background: white; margin: 0in 0in 15.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; color: #5c5c5c;">JBS publishes research papers, reviews, short communications and case reports in the areas of biological&nbsp;&nbsp;research including: freshwater biology, marine biology, environmental Biology, plant biology, bioinformatics, microbiology, molecular biology &amp; genetics, biochemistry, biotechnology, biodiversity, entomology, toxicology, ecology.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 15.0pt; background: white; margin: 0in 0in 15.0pt 0in;">&nbsp;</p> Termiticidal Efficacy of Citrus Peel Extracts against Termites (Macrotermes bellicosus) 2018-09-19T17:35:28-07:00 Edwin Ito Regina Ukpohwo <p>Termiticidal efficacy of Citrus sinensis, Citrus limon and Citrus aurantifolia peels extracts against termites (Macrotermes bellicocus) was carried out in an attempt to ascertain the mortality and LC50, of the termites using 0.21% of distilled water as a negative control. The experiment was replicated trice with distilled water as an untreated control. The termiticidal effects (mortality) of the Citrus plant extracts on the termites showed no significant difference (p&gt;0.05; F = 1.57) as the concentration increased from 10 - 30%. Also there was significant difference (p&lt;0.05; F = 29.39) in the mortality of the termites as the time of exposure increased from 24 - 72 hrs. Extract of C. aurantifolia caused more mortality that C. sinensis and C. limon. C. aurantifolia, C. sinensis and C. limon exhibited an LC50 of 17.50, 17.50 and 12.90 mgL-1. These plant extracts could serve as alternatives to synthetic insecticides in termite management practices because they are biodegradable, cost effective and non-toxic to environment and human health, easy to prepare and readily available in local markets in Delta State, Nigeria.</p> 2018-09-01T00:00:00-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Insecticidal activity of Xylopia aethiopica (Family; Annonaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus (F) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) 2018-09-19T17:43:37-07:00 Edwin Ito Regina Ukpohwo Ifeoma Okiriguo <p>The efficacy of Xylopia aethiopica leaf dust and extract on Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus oryzae was evaluated at different doses (1.0 – 3.0 g and 50.0-100 mg-ml) with 10 unsexed adult weevils per 10 gram of substrate per replicate. All treatments were triplicated and mortality of the insects was recorded after every 24 hours (h) for 96 h exposure to powder and extract respectively. The parameter compared was the mortality rate of the adult pests. The negropepper was an active biopesticide against C. maculatus and S. oryzae. However, the plant products gave higher mortality on S. oryzae with a mean of mean mortality and LD50 of 82.2% and 1.06g respectively than on C. maculatus whose mean mortality and LD50 was 79.9% and 1.12g respectively over 96 hours exposure. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference (P&lt;0.05) in pest mortality between treated and control samples. The results suggested that X. aethiopica is more promising botanical insecticides on S. oryzae than C. maculatus.</p> 2018-09-01T00:00:00-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antifungal activity of Ficus sycomorus L. extracts against dermatophytes and other associated fungi isolated from Camels ringworm lesions 2018-09-19T18:02:51-07:00 Ahlam Zakaria Fatma Abdel-Motaal Usama Mahalel <p>Ficus sycomorus antifungal efficacy against some dermatophytes and other associated fungi isolated from Camels ringworm lesions was investigated in this study. Camel shows a high importance part of the national livestock population in Egypt including transportation in the desert and as a source of milk and meat. In this study, a total of 26 fungal species appertaining to 13 genera were recovered from camel hair and skin lesion samples. The most dominant fungal genera were Aspergillus followed by Trichophyton and Microsporum. The medicinal plant, Ficus sycomorus methanol fractions 20% and 40% of root, stem-bark and leaf showed a promised antifungal activity against isolated fungi. Whereas, all tested dermatophytic fungi (Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei, Microsporum audouinii and M. gypsum) and the cycloxamide-resistance fungi (Fennellia nivea, Choaenophora cucurbitarum , Aspergillus carneus and A. fumigatus) showed high sensitivity to 40% methanol fraction except Fennellia nivea which showed the highest sensitivity to the stem-bark (20% methanol fraction). In the HPLC analysis for flavonoids content of the methanolic fractions (20% and 40%) of the different plant part (stem-bark, leaf and fruit), twenty-one compounds were detected. F. sycomorus plant extracts possess a potent antifungal effect, especially with dermatophytes.</p> 2018-09-04T00:00:00-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of lead (Pb) on phytochemical variability of Jatropha curcas (L.): a versatile perennial of Euphorbiaceae family 2018-09-19T18:11:03-07:00 Mahmoud Dardiry Amal Mohamed Eman Abdelrady <p>Jatropha curcas is a perennial plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family and it is widely used for phytoremediation techniques and biodiesel production. Jatropha curcas is also reported as a medicinal herb. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of lead on phytochemical properties of the plant. Seedlings of J. curcas were subjected to different concentrations of Pb. The plant materials were prepared for detecting metal accumulation, antioxidant activity and active phytochemical compounds. The content of Pb in the seedlings was measured after one week of the application using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The accumulation of Pb was significantly increased with increasing of the metal in the growth media. The antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1,-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) assay. It was found to be increased in the plants treated with the highest Pb concentration. The GC-MS analysis revealed presence of different compounds depending on Pb treatment. Some identified compounds were found to have a biological activity as antioxidants such as Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester; 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-,1,3,5,7-Tetroxane; p-Dioxane-2,3-diol and Heptadien-3-yne. The results indicated the ability of the plant to tolerate Pb stress and to induce its antioxidant defense system. Phytochemical screening was found to be valuable to release any risks related to plants of metal affinity to avoid possible adverse effects when used as medicine or for any other purposes.</p> 2018-09-12T00:00:00-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##