Autoantibodies as important biomarkers in early diagnosis of type-1 diabetes

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Merita Rumano
Kristina Sheme


Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the inability of beta cells in pancreas to produce insulin. Lack of the clinical symptoms until the disease has advanced, makes it difficult to diagnose in an early stage. The use of some specific serum biomarkers will make it easier to diagnose or assess the risk for diabetes earlier and most importantly in the cases that have a familiar history. Based on that, in this study, we aim to study some potential biomarkers related to the early diagnosis and prediction of type 1 diabetes, and the relationship between these biomarkers in a group of individuals suspected of type 1 diabetes.

Fifty individuals, from Tirana region, suspected for diabetes type I, were enrolled in this study. Their mean age was 22.5 (±19.7), with a range from 2 months old to 47 years old. Fasting blood was collected in vacuum tubes and tested for C-peptide, anti IA2, anti ICA and anti-GAD levels. The results showed that the increase of positive autoantibodies affects the decrease of C-peptide levels, which means that the pancreatic β-cells have started to lose their functionality, as a result of cell death which is caused by the autoimmune attack. There can be many reasons that lead to this autoimmune attack, starting from genetic and epigenetic factors, immunologic and other factors based on the lifestyle of these individuals as well. After blood tests and data analysis, it was observed that individuals who have more than two positive autoantibodies have a higher prevalence of developing type 1 diabetes, even though they have no clinical signs at the time of diagnosis. It was noticed also that there is no statistically significant difference between the presence of positive autoantibodies and gender. This indicates that any individual can develop positive autoantibodies regardless of gender.

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How to Cite
Rumano, M., & Sheme, K. (2024). Autoantibodies as important biomarkers in early diagnosis of type-1 diabetes. Journal of Biological Studies, 7(2), 43–53.