Following a thorough investigation, a formal retraction may be contemplated in the event that the published paper comprises errors that significantly tally with its conclusions and results. The retraction of articles in  Journal of Biological Studies adheres to the guidelines set forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

In the following instances, journal editors ought to contemplate the retraction of a publication:

- In the event that substantial errors are detected that render the article unsuitable for publication in the journal, it signifies violations of professional ethical codes, including but not limited to multiple submissions, fraudulent data utilization, false authorship assertions, and plagiarism.

- The article may have been tainted by experimental errors or miscalculations, or its primary conclusion may be rendered significantly erroneous or invalid due to the discovery of new evidence that the authors were unaware of at the time of publication.

- Plagiarism will result in the removal of the entire article from the journal, accompanied by a notation that includes the names of the authors and a description of the plagiarism. The institutions and authors will be duly informed.

It should be noted that the retention of copyright by authors does not inherently grant them the right to retract an article subsequent to its publication. Maintaining the integrity of the published scientific record remains critical, and in such circumstances, the COPE Retraction Guidelines remain applicable.

In the event that the author requests revisions, the Editor-in-Chief, Associate Editor, and the reviewer who initially assessed the paper will conduct additional peer review. Following the Editor-in-Chief and Associate Editors' ultimate decision, the amendments will be published in the category listed below.


Errata pertain to the correction of mistakes made by the journal during the editing or production process, which have an impact on the scientific precision of the information published or the journal's reputation.


A corrigendum refers to a significant revision introduced by the author, which has the potential to compromise the scientific integrity of the information published or damage the standing of the authors or the journal. Corrigenda submitted for publication, which will subsequently be subject to editor supervision and potentially peer review, require the signature of all authors.


Addenda are significance peer-reviewed addition to the interpretation of the original publication, which affects the scientific accuracy of published information or the reputation of the authors, or the reputation of the journal. Addenda do not contradict the original publication, but if the authors inadvertently omitted significant information available to them at the time, this material will be published as an addendum after peer review.